Table of Contents
- 1 What forms to attach to chromatids and move them to opposite poles of the cell?
- 2 What structure is helping the chromosomes move to the poles?
- 3 What structure forms in prophase along which the chromosomes move?
- 4 What does the prophase do?
- 5 How are the sister chromatids pulled apart?
- 6 How are chromosomes attached to each other during metaphase?
What forms to attach to chromatids and move them to opposite poles of the cell?
As mitosis progresses, the microtubules attach to the chromosomes, which have already duplicated their DNA and aligned across the center of the cell. The spindle tubules then shorten and move toward the poles of the cell. As they move, they pull the one copy of each chromosome with them to opposite poles of the cell.
What helps the chromosome of each pair to move to opposite pole?
Anaphase I: The pair of chromosomes are then pulled apart by the meiotic spindle, which pulls one chromosome to one pole of the cell and the other chromosome to the opposite pole. In meiosis I the sister chromatids stay together.
Which structure is the chromatid to opposite poles of the cell?
The centromere is the point of attachment of the kinetochore, a protein structure that is connected to the spindle fibres (part of a structure that pulls the chromatids to opposite ends of the cell).
What structure is helping the chromosomes move to the poles?
Long protein fibers called microtubules extend from the centrioles in all possible directions, forming what is called a spindle. Some of the microtubules attach the poles to the chromosomes by connecting to protein complexes called kinetochores.
What does the metaphase do?
Metaphase is a stage in the cell cycle where all the genetic material is condensing into chromosomes. These chromosomes then become visible. During this stage, the nucleus disappears and the chromosomes appear in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Which are replicated during interphase?
During interphase, the cell grows and DNA is replicated. During the mitotic phase, the replicated DNA and cytoplasmic contents are separated, and the cell divides.
What structure forms in prophase along which the chromosomes move?
In mitosis, the structure that helps chromosomes move and forms during prophase is called mitotic spindle.
Where on the chromatid are the microtubules attached?
The microtubules attached to a particular chromatid all come from one pole of the spindle, and those attached to its sister chromatid come from the opposite pole. At this stage, the mitotic spindle is fully formed, with its poles at the opposite ends of the cell.
What structures helps the chromatids move during mitosis?
In particular, two structures called centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell during this phase and begin building the mitotic spindle. The mitotic spindle plays a critical role during the later phases of mitosis as it orchestrates the movement of sister chromatids to opposite poles of the cell (Figure 2).
What does the prophase do?
Prophase is the first phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. The spindle will be responsible for separating the sister chromatids into two cells.
What is prophase simple?
Definition of prophase 1 : the initial stage of mitosis and of the mitotic division of meiosis characterized by the condensation of chromosomes consisting of two chromatids, disappearance of the nucleolus and nuclear membrane, and formation of mitotic spindle.
What three things do cells do during interphase?
During interphase, the cell grows (G1), replicates its DNA (S) and prepares for mitosis (G2).
How are the sister chromatids pulled apart?
The sister chromatids are pulled apart by the shortening of the spindle fibers. This is a little like reeling in a fish by shortening the fishing line. One sister chromatid moves to one pole of the cell, and the other sister chromatid moves to the opposite pole (see Figure 11.3. 6).
What happens in centromere during mitosis?
Centromere contains proteins called kinetochores (not shown) where spindles attach during mitosis. The process in which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides is called mitosis. During mitosis, the two sister chromatids that make up each chromosome separate from each other and move to opposite poles of the cell. Mitosis occurs in four phases.
What is the function of spindle fibers in mitosis?
A network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromatids to the poles. Sister chromatids move toward opposite poles as the spindle fibers attached to them shorten. Once all of the chromosomes are lined up, the spindle fibers shorten.
How are chromosomes attached to each other during metaphase?
Each sister chromatid attaches to spindle microtubules at the centromere via a protein complex called the kinetochore. During metaphase, all of the chromosomes are aligned in a plane called the metaphase plate, or the equatorial plane, midway between the two poles of the cell.